"On Crime and Punishments" by Cesare Beccaria
Cesare Beccaria wrote is book 'On Crime and Punishments' in 1974, he believed that there was a great need for reform in the criminal justice system and he observed how few studies there were on the subject. His work I based on two key philosophical theories: social contract and utility.
Social contract: Beccaria argues that punishment is justified only to defend the social contract and to ensure that everyone will be motivated to abide by it.
Utility:the method of punishment selected should be that which serves the greatest public good.
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