0 Nowadays, many of graffiti artists are treated as respected artists, and some of them have made it in the world of business. But until recently, graffiti was considered to be an example of anti-social behaviour.
1 New Yorkers used to see the graffiti on the walls of poor neighbourhoods соседства and subway trains as something menacing угрожающий and an example of urban decay городская деградация. The scrawled нацарапанный names and slogans слоган were seen as unsightly and aggressive, the work of vandals seeking искать to express their identities идентичности or even make a political pointполитические
точки. Up to the 1970s, most New Yorkers hated ненавидеть graffiti, considering считать it as an eyesore that was illegal and punishable наказуемый by fines штрафы.
2 Since those days, graffiti has changed a lot and it is no longer found only in the subway and the poor ghetto areas of the city. Nowadays, it has the status of “street art” and you get graffiti in places where you wouldn't expect ожидать to - in advertisements реклама, on clothes, on toys, and even on the Wall Street Journal's official website! In the early 1980s, there was a real craze for graffiti art and the sophisticated Manhattan art world had displays of street art in its galleries. The trend was short-lived недолговечный- until the arrival возвращение of hip-hop music in the late 80s.
3 In her book, Subway Art, Martha Cooper says "Graffiti came back with hip-hop music and people are now appreciating ценить it for its style, which they couldn't back then, because they couldn't get beyond the vandalism thing." Hip-hop was originally black ghetto music, sung by young African Americans from the poor, run-down districts районы of American cities. When it suddenly got to the top of the American music charts, hip-hop culture was spread распространяться, bringing graffiti with it.
4 Today companies are starting to realise the appeal обращение of graffiti in advertising. Kel Rodriguez, who used to spray распылять New York subway trains, was the artist chosen to design the Wall Street Journal's website and it is obviously очевидно done in graffiti-style. "Some of that graffiti feeling, that energy, sort of got in there," Rodriguez explained.
5 Many of this new wave волна of artists give lectures on developments in their art. Lee Quindnesis having a lot of success in Europe and feels that European galleries and museums are more open to his art form. "They want to support an artist as he develops," comments Quinones, who can get up to $10,000 for his paintings. Indeed, the Groninger Museum in Holland is one of the few museums in the world that displays отображать and recognizes признавать graffiti as an art form.…
- Русское языковое влияние в Болгарии
- Эвфемизмы и политическая корректность английского и русского языков
E-pasta adrese, uz kuru nosūtīt darba saiti:
Saite uz darbu: