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Publicēts: 21.09.2004.
Valoda: Angļu
Līmenis: Vidusskolas
Literatūras saraksts: Nav
Atsauces: Nav
Darba fragmentsAizvērt

1303: the French king Philippe IV kidnaps pope Boniface VIII over the right to tax the French clergy
1306: Philippe IV expels the Jews from France
1309: French pope Clement V moves to Avignon
1309: the Hospitallers conquer the island of Rhodes and move their capital there, establishing an ecclesiastical principality under the eastern Roman empire
1309: the Teutonic Knights move their capital from Venice to Prussia and establishes a theocratic state
1312: the Hospitallers are awarded the Templars' possessions in western Europe, Cyprus, and Greece (kingdom of Achaia)
1314: Jacques de Molay, the grand master of the Templars, is burned at the stake in Paris
1327: German emperor Ludwig IV invades Italy and appoints pope John XXII
1328: Charles IV, the last Capetian king of France dies, his daughter Jeanne is disqualified from occupying the French throne, and Edward III of England claims the French throne, whereas the French nobility chooses Philippe of Valois, the first Valois king
1328: Navarra declares its independence from France
1337: Philippe VI of France and Edward III of England go to war over France ("Hundred Years' War")
1340: guns are fired from ships for the first time at the battle of Sluys
1343: the Hanseatic League is formalized in Cologne
1347: the plague ("Black Death"), carried by Genoese merchants from Crimea, spreads throughout Europe and kills 25 million people, one third of the European population
1353: the league of Switzerland is formed
1353: the German monk Berthold Schwarz invents the cannon, and the catapult becomes rapidly obsolete
1356: England captures the French king and one third of France at the battle of Poitiers
1356: German emperor Karl IV issues the "Golden Bull" to codify the election of German emperors by seven electors (the archbishops of Trier, Mainz and Cologne, the king of Bohemia, the count Palatine of the Rhine, the duke of Saxony and the margrave of Brandenburg)
1364: Charles V liberates France from England
1369: Amsterdam joins the Hanseatic League
1370: the Hanseatic League defeats Waldemar IV of Denmark, thus gaining the monopoly of trade in Scandinavia
1391: the Jews of Iberia are forced to convert
1410: the Teutonic Knights are defeated by Jagiello's Polish-Lithuanian army at the battle of Tannenberg
1415: Henry V of England allies with Burgundy, defeats the French at the battle of Agincourt, takes prisoner the duke of Orleans and proceeds to reconquer Normandy from France
1415: prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal seizes Ceuta from the Muslims
1420: England seizes northern France
1424: prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal sends the first expedition to Africa
1429: the French army, led by Jeanne d'Arc, triumphs at Orleans against the English and their allies
1430: Portugal trades slaves within Africa
1431: the English burn Jeanne d'Arc at the stakes
1431: Henry VI of England is crowned king of France in Paris
1434: Portuguese explorer Gil Eanes reaches the Cape and explores the western coast of Africa on behalf of prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal
1436: Afonso de Baldaya reaches Rio de Oro on behalf of prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal
1441: the Hanseatic League is defeated by the Dutch
1444: the first public sale of African slaves by Europeans takes place at Lagos, Portugal
1453: France expels the English (end of the "Hundred Years' War")
1453: the Turks use a cannon built by Bombard that can hurl a 270 kg ball over 1.5 kms
1456: Gutenberg invents the printing press and prints the Bible
1460: Louis XI annexes Burgundy
1464: France establishes a postal system
1466: Kazimierz IV's Polish army defeats the Teutonic Knights and annexes western Prussia to Poland
1467: France establishes the postal system …

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