By character, investments re divided into direct and indirect investments. Direct investments are investments in some production, including purchase, creation or expansion of company’s funds as well as all other operations related to introduction or strengthening control of the company or expansion of its activity. Direct investments provide to investors direct participation in the choice of investment objects and actual control of these objects.
Indirect investments, or portfolio investments, are usually carried out by a passive investor who acquires a small share in a company in order to get limited, but stable dividends. These investors usually do not strive for company management, as their investments are usually either too little or spread among the holders and cannot provide control for their owner. Portfolio investments are also investments in securities with speculative purposes (objective of getting profit from rise of market price of shares or other instruments). Portfolio can include securities of one type (shares) or different types (shares, bonds, certificates of deposit, mortgage bonds, derivatives etc.).
Depending on terms, investments can be short-term (up to 1 year), middle-term (usually 1 – 5 years) and long-term (more than 5 years). Short-term investments are usually made for speculative purposes, awaiting of rise of market price of security or asset.
The subjects of investment activity can be individuals, companies or governmental institutions. The investments made by individuals or legal persons are considered as private, but investments made on governmental level – as public.…
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