Anime and Manga
|1.1||History and characteristics||7|
|1.2||After World War II||8|
|1.3.2||Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga||10|
|1.9||Europe and the United Kingdom||15|
|1.10||International Manga Award||16|
|2.4||The representative styles of "classic" and "modern" anime art||19|
|2.11||Influence on Western culture||25|
In Japan, manga are widely read by people of all ages, so that a broad range of subjects and topics occur in manga, including action-adventure, romance, sports, games, historical, drama, comedy, science fiction, fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, business, commerce and among others. Since the 1950s, manga have steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry, representing a 481 billion yen market in Japan in 2006 (approximately $4.4 billion dollars). Manga have also become increasingly popular worldwide. In 2006, the United States manga market was $175–200 million.
Manga are typically printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist (e.g. Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in telephone book-size manga magazines, often containing many stories each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon. A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run. Although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films. (E.g. Star Wars).
Manga as a term outside of Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan. However, manga and manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in Korea ("manhwa") and in the People's Republic of China, including Hong Kong ("manhua"). In France, "la nouvelle manga" is a form of bande dessinée drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga. In the U.S., manga-like comics are called Amerimanga, world manga, or original English-language manga (OEL manga).
The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.
Manga, literally translated, means "whimsical pictures".…