Modern originated as a reaction to the Eclecticism (the style that implied imitation of the historical styles, lack of taste, because of commercialization of art, mechanical production)
The period of the establishment of Modern is marked with ardour for medieval and folk art. That period also characterizes with the revival of art studios and handicraft workshops.
In 1883 the association of Art and Handicraft was created. It maintained an idea that handicraft should remain as an art, and fought against commercialization and, as a result, deterioration of quality. The masters of that association began to produce interior objects with completely different design that very soon met great interest in Europe.
Features of Modern
Ornament (basically vegetable or floral)
In most cases smooth, curved lines
Unity of art and frame constructions
Unique form of each building, facades of different design
Use of different building materials (mainly ferroconcrete, glass, forged metal, crude stone)
Quite popular became an idea of the city-garden. Those were small architectural complexes that could provide themselves with essential resources. City- gardens implied termination of the concentration of dwelling houses in big cities.
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