Common commercial policy. Customs union
The common commercial policy is one of the main pillars of the European Union's relations with the rest of the world [1, p.364]. It is an area of exclusive Community responsibility (Article 133 of the Treaty establishing the European Community), and is the pendant to the creation of a customs union of the Member States. It is one of the Community's key policy areas, where the powers of the individual Member States have been conferred to the trans-national level, which implies that the Member States are not allowed to conduct autonomous commercial policies.
The legal basis for the common commercial policy is provided in Article 133 of the EU Treaty, obliging the Member States that »the common commercial policy shall be based on uniform principles, particularly in regard to changes in tariff rates, the conclusion of tariff and trade agreements, the achievement of uniformity in measures of liberalisation, export policy and measures to protect trade such as those to be taken in the event of dumping or subsidies«.
The common commercial policy implies uniform conduct of trade relations with third countries, in particular by means of a common customs tariff and common import and export regimes.[2;3]
The Community supports the abolition of trade restrictions and customs barriers. To defend the Community market, it has at its disposal tools such as antidumping and anti-subsidy measures, the Trade Barriers Regulation and safeguard measures.
- Common commercial policy. Customs union
- The Enlargement of the European Union
- Work, Work Organization, Labour Market and Employment Policy
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