Management for the 21st Century
To conclude, the management development area is quite complex. People that take part in this process have their own strengths and weaknesses, their own point of view about what is management, their own capability to transfer their knowledge.
In addition, the working context changes with time. It appears some changes in the employment patterns, in the structure of the organization and in the economical and political context.
Then, give a scheme of what an effective management development program is, is complex. We have some method to apply to try to make an effective managerial work. The formal methods and the informal methods have their own advantages and disadvantages but the both are necessary to an effective management.
Then, the Mumford's model of Integration of Management Development seems to be the best way to achieve an effectiveness of Management Development.
Thus, formal methods are not inappropriate but they just are limited in the sense that managers need more informal tools to include all the different variables which act on their work.
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