Etymological Analysis of Terminology Designating Municipalities in English
|Chapter I.||Etymology as a branch of linguistics studying origins of words||7|
|1.1.||The Historical Background of Etymology||7|
|1.2.||An overview on types of descent identified in etymology||8|
|Chapter II.||Peculiarities of the administrative-territorial division in various English speaking countries||11|
|2.1||Administrative-territorial Division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||11|
|2.2.||Administrative-territorial Division of Ireland||12|
|2.3.||Administrative-territorial Division of the United States of America||13|
|2.4||Administrative-territorial Division of Commonwealth of Australia||13|
|2.5.||Administrative-territorial Division of Canada||13|
|Chapter III.||Etymological analysis of terms designating municipalities||15|
|Appendix 1. Etymology of Terminology Designating Municipalities||23|
The first settlements appeared on the Earth 10-12 thousand years ago. In fact, the first towns appeared in III century BC. For example, the population of Babylon and Memphis was approximately 80000 people. The ancient cities were overcrowded with a low level of beautification. The boom of cities was provoked by the growth and strengthening of the slaveholding system.
In the 11th century there were cities in the majority of countries in Western Europe. Prior to this there were cities that had been part of the Roman Empire however, some of them lost their significance of trade centers and were used only as the residence of bishop, kings and nobility.
The first inhabitants were craftsmen. New cities appeared in different places, for instance, close to castles and fortresses where walls could serve as protection; round monasteries; close to bridges, close to frod of rivers. Gradually cities got the big economic value, becoming the craft and trade centres.
The first feudal system in England was introduced by the Normans; it was designed to govern rural areas which could easily be controlled by a lord but the system was unsuited to governing larger towns. Henry II expanded the separation of towns from the countryside. He granted around 150 royal charters to towns around England, which were thereafter referred to as ‘boroughs’. Subsequently a certain set of administrative – territorial entities developed. …