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Identifikators:691869
Autors:
Vērtējums:
Publicēts: 02.12.2010.
Valoda: Angļu
Līmenis: Augstskolas
Literatūras saraksts: 60 vienības
Atsauces: Ir
SatursAizvērt
Nr. Sadaļas nosaukums  Lpp.
  DECLARATION    2
  CONTENT    3
  ABSTRACT    4
  CONTRIBUTOR    5
  INTRODUCTION    6
  THEORETICAL (HISTORICAL) PART    9
1.  ANALYSIS OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME 1969-1987    9
2.  ANALYSIS OF THE ERASMUS PROGRAMME 1987-2009    11
  THEORETICAL (CONCEPTUAL) PART    13
1.  CONCEPT OF TOLERANCE    13
2.  FACTORS, CRITERIA AND INDICATORS OF TOLERANCE    15
3.  INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION    16
4.  SOCIAL DISTANCE    16
5.  STEREOTYPES AND PREJUDICES    16
  EMPYRICAL PART    19
1.  SURVEY    19
1.1.  METHODOLOGY    19
1.2.  RESULTS    21
1.3.  ANALYSIS    24
2.  INTERVIEWS    26
2.1.  METHODOLOGY    26
2.2.  RESULTS    27
2.3.  ANALYSIS    30
  CONCLUSION    31
  BIBLIOGRAPHY    34
  ANNEX    38
  Annex I: Historical Outline of the ERASMUS Programme 1957-2009    38
  Annex II: Questionnaire (ENG)    39
  Annex III: Questionnaire (FR)    41
  Annex IV: Tables of Statistical Data of Survey    43
  Annex V: Transcripts of Interviews with Experts of the ERASMUS Programme    46
  Annex VI: Transcripts of Interviews with Experts of Tolerance    49
Darba fragmentsAizvērt

In our world today, the political agenda emphasizes tolerance as a value that takes a
significant place in the context of European integration and creation of European identity. The
enlargement of the European Union (hereinafter “EU”) in years of 2004 and 2007 has
widened multicultural features of the EU because of joining new languages, religions, ethnical
groups and cultures. Therefore, as a result, differentiation of European cultures has become a
value (European Parliament, 2008) and, therefore, the importance of intercultural dialogue has
increased (Year of Intercultural Dialogue, 2008).
Erasmus of Rotterdam became a pioneer of mobility grants by bequeathing his fortune to the
University of Basel. However, as many people believe, the name of the ERASMUS exchange
Programme of students of the European Union (hereinafter “ERASMUS Programme”) has
not been named after this famous scholar. ERASMUS is rather an acronym for “European
Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students”1 (Ilchman et al., 2004: 156).
Today, the ERASMUS Programme is described as one of the symbols of construction of
European identity and one of the most successful examples of promoting European
integration. Furthermore, the motto of ERASMUS Programme exemplifies it: “bringing
students to Europe, bringing Europe to all students” (Nelson & Neack, 2002: 207). The
programme is also contributing to “an ever-closer Union among the peoples of Europe” and
highlights the motto of EU: “unity in diversity”. In the author‟s mind, the ERASMUS
Programme also plays significant role in the context of promoting tolerance: enriching the
multicultural experience and developing intercultural abilities. But in the author‟s opinion this
field is not researched adequately; it could be further argued that such research is unique not
only in Switzerland but also in Europe2.
1
The success of the ERASMUS Programme led to the custom of naming various other Community programmes after
prestigious figures from European cultures like Socrates, Leonardo or Comenius.
2
Author has written Bachelor thesis where have been researched case of Latvia and France. In Master thesis author has
expanded her field of interest to Switzerland. During her studies in Central European University (2009/2010) there will be
also researched case of Hungary, therefore four different countries will be covered relating to the EU Member States: old
Western European (France), new Eastern European (Latvia), non-EU (Switzerland) and Central European state (Hungary). In
future perspective author would like to hold research on all states participating in the ERASMUS Programme.
INTRODUCTION 7
The problem issue of this Master thesis is, whether the ERASMUS Programme has promoted
tolerance. The following hypothesis has been drawn - the ERASMUS Programme promotes
tolerance on the basis of multicultural experience, intercultural education, decreasing social
distance, breaking stereotypes, and in the promotion of trust and openness. To prove this
hypothesis the following tasks has been drafted: first, to define and describe concepts of
“tolerance”, “intercultural education”, “social distance”, “stereotype” and “prejudice”, second,
to analyse aims and the role of the ERASMUS Programme (pre-and post-foundation phases),
third, to draw criteria and indicators of tolerance, as well as to establish the factors and units
of analysis; forth, to hold a survey for the students who have participated in the ERASMUS
Programme in Latvia (University of Latvia), France (Science Po Lille or officially Institut
d'Etudes Politiques de Lille) and Switzerland (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule
Zürich); fifth, to carry out interviews with experts of the ERASMUS Programme and experts
of tolerance.

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